If you don’t know what your horse’s vital signs are when he’s healthy, it can be difficult to tell when he is off. Establishing baseline numbers for your horse when he’s well means you can provide more information to your veterinarian when he’s sick.

Observe your healthy horse at rest when he’s not involved in physical activity. The following are normal vital signs; these can vary between individuals, so measure these over several days when the horse is healthy to determine your baseline.

Rectal temperature
Normal for an adult horse is anything less than 101°F; for a foal, normal is less than 102°F.

General demeanor
Your horse should be bright, alert and interested in his surroundings. He should be responsive to you and other stimuli and interested in food.

Heart rate
Normal ranges for an adult horse are from 27-48 beats per minute (bpm) at rest.

Pulse rate
Normal pulse rates should mirror heart rates.

Respiratory rate
Normal in adult horses can range from eight to 20 respirations per minute. The rate depends on ambient temperature, with hotter temperatures—especially combined with high humidity—causing higher respiratory rates.

Mucous membranes
The color should be pink, like what you see beneath the nail of your pinky finger. When blanched by the tip of your finger, the mucous membranes of your horse’s gums should return to normal color within two seconds. Also, the membranes should be moist.

Intestinal sounds (also called borborygmi)
Gut noises should be active in all quadrants around both flanks. They will sound like what you hear when your stomach growls when you are hungry. Decreased or absent sounds are abnormal.

Digital pulses (on the back of the fetlock)
These should barely be felt; if bounding (a hard beating), this usually indicates a problem.

Fecal output
Most horses pass eight to 12 fecal piles per day. The manure should be well-formed (fecal balls) and moist.

Urinary output
It is important to monitor signs of urination and determine what is normal for your horse. Color of normal urine is pale yellow and can be cloudy under normal circumstances, especially if the horse is fed alfalfa products.

The horse should be comfortable standing on all four limbs without shifting weight or pointing a leg in front of him. He should walk off normally and be able to turn without hesitation.

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